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A listing of known champions who defended, continued and or preserved Pagan religion, ideas and philosophy through the Byzantine Era from the time of Constantine until the Renaissance Era, which is commonly recognized as the birth of the modern world.

EMPEROR MAXENTIUS - Roman pagan Emperor, defeated by Constantine at the Milvian bridge  306 to 312 AD

EMPEROR JULIAN - Last public Pagan Emperor of All the Roman World  - 361 to 363 AD

SALLUSTIUS - Roman General and friend of the Emperor Julian - 361-363 AD

LIBANIUS - Neoplatonist Philosopher and teacher of the Emperor Julian -  314-394 AD

SYMMACHUS - Roman Pagan Senator who argued to retain the Altar of Victory in the Senate 345 to 342 AD

VETTIUS AGORIUS PRAETEXTATUS - Pagan priest and Roman Praetorian Prefect under Valentinian II - 384 AD

EMPEROR EUGENIUS - Western Roman Emperor and last to raise Pagan banners in battle  392 to 394 AD

FLAVIUS ARBOGASTES - pagan Roman general who helped raise Eugenius to the throne in the West, 394 AD

VIRIUS NICHOMACHUS FLAVIANUS - pagan Praetorian Prefect who supported Eugenius in 394 AD

EUNAPIUS - last heirophant of Eleusis 410? AD

HYPATIA OF ALEXANDRIA - Neoplatonist Philosoper, murdered by a Christian mob 350 to 414 AD

RUTILIUS CLAUDIUS NAMATIANUS - Pagan author and friend of Senator Symmachus 414 AD

PRISCUS ATTALUS - Pagan Senator proclaimed Emperor by the Visigothsin 409 and 414 AD

PALLADAS - Pagan teacher and author who wrote a eulogy to Hypatia and decried religious violence 369-420? AD

STOBAEUS5th century Pagan writer who collected and preserved works from ancient Greek authors 410-420? AD

MARTIANUS CAPELLA - 5th Century Pagan Author, the lunar crater "capella" is named for him. 410-420? AD

MARCELLENIUS - Roman general, who was considered a candidate for Emperor to revive Paganism,  464-468 AD

EMPEROR ANTHEMIUS - Privately pagan Western Roman emperor, from 467 to 472 AD

MESSIUS PHOEBUS SEVERUS - Roman official who planned Pagan revival with Anthemius, 467 to 472 AD

MARCELLINUS  -  Roman Pagan General and ruler of Dalmatia 454 to 468 AD

MACROBIUSNeoplatonist Philosopher and Pagan Author 395 to 428 AD

PROCLUS - Neoplatonist philosopher who is known to have been initiated into several Mystery cults, 412 to 485 AD

HERMIAS - Pagan Neoplatonist philosopher who taught in Alexandria 410-450 AD

AEDESIA - female pagan philosopher and wife of Hermias, who taught in Alexandria 410 to  475 (?)  AD

ILLUS - Roman pagan general who made a final attempt at restoring Paganism with usurper Leontius in 488 AD

LEONTIUS - Last pagan usurper of Roman Emperorship who hoped to reopen Pagan temples - 488 AD

HORAPOLLO - One of the last leaders of ancient Egyptian priesthood, 474 to 491 AD

ZOSIMUS  -  Pagan historian in Constantinople,  from 491 to 518 AD

AMMONIUS HERMIAE - pagan philosopher and son of Hermias and Aedisia who taught in Alexandria 440-520 AD

HELIODORUS - pagan philosopher, son of Hermias and Aedisia, teacher of Damascius 520 AD

DAMASCIUS - Last president of the Neoplatonist school in Athens, fled to Persia in 560 AD.

SIMPLICIUS - One of the last Neoplatonist philosopers from Athens, moved the school to Persia in 560 AD

EULAMIUS - Another Pagan Neoplatonist philosopher from the school of Athens who went to Persia in 560 AD

IOENNES LYDOS - pagan Praetorian Prefect under Justianian who wrote on ancient subjects 490-566? AD

OLYMPIODORUS - Neoplatonist and last head of the school at Alexandria 570 AD.

THE CITIZENS OF BAALBEK - Pagans of this city planned a religious revolt in 578 AD.

THE CITIZENS OF BARBAGIA - Founded a short lived independent Pagan principality in 590 AD.

ACINDYNUS OF CARRHAE - Governor of the city of Carrhae, executed for being Pagan in 602 AD.

STEPHANUS OF ALEXANDRIA - Neoplatonist who returned the school of Philosophy to Constantinople 610-641 AD

THE CITIZENS OF LACONIA - Pagans of this city were still actively resisting conversion in 804 AD.

JOHANNES SCOTUS ERIUGENA  - Neoplatonist - did translations for Byzantine emperor Michael III 815-877 AD

THE MANIOTS - The last Greek community to practice ancient Hellenism, finally subdued around 875 AD.

THE NARANTINES - This former Roman province retained public Classical-Slavic paganism until 880 AD.

MICHAEL PSELLOS - Neoplatonist philosopher, author and politician, accused of Pagan heresy 1018-1078? AD

JOHN ITALUS - Byzantine Neoplatonist philosopher and writer condemned for heresy 1082 AD

IOANE PETRITSI - Neoplatonist philosopher who worked to reconcile ancient belief with Orthodox thought 1125 AD

MICHAEL OF EPHESUS - Byzantine philosopher who promoted Neoplatonist ideals 1150? AD

GEORGE PACHYMERES - Byzantine philosopher, astrologer and author of a magical treatise 1242-1310 AD

MAXIMOS PLANOUDES  - Byzantine author who translated philosophical and magical works 1260-1305 AD

DEMETRIOS CHLOROS -  Byzantine philosopher and magician put on trial by the Church  1310? AD

GEMISTUS PLETHO - Neoplatonist Philosopher and pagan who raised the last Byzantine Emperor 1355 to 1454 AD

SIGISMONDO MALATESTA - The Lord of Riminy, probable cryptopagan - builder of Pletho's tomb. 1417-1468 AD

BASILIOS BESSARION - Philosopher and Author, student of Pletho  - probable cryptopagan - 1403 to 1472 AD

DEMETRIUS KABAKES - Pagan student of Gemistus Pletho, put to death for heresy 1397-1487 AD

JOHN ARGYOPOULOS - Neoplatonist associate of Pletho, traveled to Italy after Constantinople's fall 1415-1487 AD

GIOVANNI  MIRANDOLA - Italian Neoplatonist who wrote the "Manifesto of the Renaissance"  1463- 1494 AD

MARCILIO FINICO - Italian Neoplatonist , aquaintence of Pletho and head of the Platonic Academy 1433-1499 AD


The Byzantine school of Gemistus Pletho, through contact with the West, sparked Platonism in the Renaissance and brought the ideas and spirit of ancient Paganism into the modern world.  


If you know of any historical figure who was a champion of Pagan religious practice, philosophy or thought from the Time of Constantine until the Renaissance Era who should be included here, email us at:



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